WP 2 – Hydrogen quality assurance

To support hydrogen purity testing as specified in ISO 14687 by developing traceable offline gas analysis methods, stable and accurate primary reference gas mixtures and the metrological tools to enable the introduction of low cost gas analysers suitable for use by commercial gas analysis laboratories. In addition, to develop a robust method for accurately performing online measurement of particulates (to determine whether levels are above or below 1 mg/kg) in hydrogen provided at the refuelling station, as specified in ISO 14687 (WP2, M1-36).


In anticipation of a growing hydrogen economy, EU Directive 2014/94/EU on the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure was written in 2014 to introduce strict regulations by the end of 2017. The fuel cell system in a hydrogen vehicle can easily degrade if even parts-per-billion to parts-per-million level of some impurities are present in the hydrogen. EU Directive 2014/94/EU will therefore include a requirement to ensure that hydrogen supplied to fuel cell vehicles complies with the purity specifications in ISO 14687. Although it is imperative that this regulation is enforced, no accredited laboratory in the world can traceably perform the complete range of hydrogen purity measurements specified in ISO 14687. If these methods and measurement capabilities are not developed over the next few years, the hydrogen industry could face problems as they would not be able to evidence compliance to ISO 14687. Failing to do this will mean that the refuelling station cannot provide sufficient proof that the hydrogen they provide conforms to EU Directive 2014/94/EU and therefore they may not be allowed to supply hydrogen to a fuel cell vehicle.


Workpackage deliverables

All deliverables from workpackage 2 of the MetroHyVe project can be found in the table below. All available documents are located in the section DOWNLOADS.

NumberDescriptionTypePartnersDelivery date
A2.1.1 Literature review of existing analytical methods for hydrogen purity analysis a specified in ISO 14687 using NPL’s published papers as the foundation. Literature Review Air Liquide, CEM, NPL, RISE, VSL Dec 2017 (M7)
A2.1.8 Report on the new analytical methods developed in A2.1.2-A2.1.4 and the comparison with Japanese (JIS) and American (ASTM) standard method for halogenated compound measurement and other selected methods as performed in A2.1.6-A2.1.7. Report CEM, AP2E, IFE, NEN, NPL, SINTEF, RISE, VSL Mar 2020 (M34)
A2.2.3/2.D3Good practice guide for handling and transporting filters (as specified in ISO 14687) for offline particulate sampling (levels around 1 mg/kg) and best approach for traceable gravimetric weighing of particulate filters.Good practice guideNPL, Air Liquide, ITM, NEN, Shell, SINTEFMay 2020 (M36)
A2.3.1 Report reviewing the availability of primary reference gas mixtures for all of the impurities listed in ISO 14687 at the threshold specifications and where necessary the lack of commercially available gas cylinders with suitable passivation for the reactive impurities. Report VSL, CEM, Linde, NPL Dec 2017 (M7)
A2.4.3 Paper describing the results of NPL testing the new membrame developed by SINTEF against a commercial palladium-based membrame in NPL's hydrogen impurity enrichment device. Paper NPL, SINTEF Mar 2018 (M10)
A2.5.6 Report containing a summary of the methods investigated in A2.5.1 with focus on performance, implementation and cost; a selection process for designing the final instrument layout in A2.5.3; a guideline on how to implement the cost-efficient offline system with the good practice for calibrating the instruments. Report NPL, AP2E, CEM, Linde, NEN, RISE Feb 2020 (M33)
A2.6.4 Results of developping the outline for a suitable round-robin scheme for hydrogen purity. Results VSL, NPL Aug 2019 (M27)
A2.6.6/2.D4Report on the results of the interlaboratory comparison for offline hydrogen purity analysis with conclusions on the participant agreement and recommendations for future improvements.Interlaboratory comparison reporNPL, Air Liquide, CEM IFE, Linde, NEN, Shell, SINTEF, RISE, VSLMay 2020 (M36)

Contact information Workpackage leader

Thomas Bacquart
E-mailaddress: thomas.bacquart@npl.co.uk
Telephone: (+44)  20 8977 3222