The project partners comprise the top European National Metrology Institutes and key players in the hydrogen industry. Together, we will address the key measurement challenges shown above by developing physical solutions and best practice recommendations through scientific studies, the results of which will be disseminated publically for use by anyone in the hydrogen industry.
NEN is the Royal Dutch Standardization Institute, legally set up as a non-profit foundation. NEN is the Dutch knowledge-centre for standards. NEN supports over 1400 standardization committees with 7000 members. NEN is the Dutch representing member in international standardization organisations, such as ISO, IEC, CEN and CENELEC. An important role of NEN is giving advice to the Dutch government regarding reference to standards, the application of standards in the formation of statutory regulations and about the government policy on standardization. NEN has the experience to create standards and protocols and disseminate them which will be an important focus of their role as work package leader for creating impact in this project.
NPL is world-leading in the field of gas metrology and already provides primary reference gas mixtures for impurities in hydrogen and an accredited (UKAS) service for performing many of the hydrogen purity measurements specified in ISO 14687. NPL have also developed a high accuracy Hydrogen Impurity Enrichment Device which allows limits of detection to be reduced by factors of 100 by concentrating the impurities in hydrogen. The particulates group at NPL have developed offline and online methods for performing traceable measurement of particulate mass concentration and sizing. The humidity group at NPL provide the primary standard for humidity in various gases at high pressure and controlled temperature.
Air Liquide produces around 1 million of tons of hydrogen per year for steel, glass, chemical and food industries but mainly for refineries. The Group operates a large distribution network, which includes gaseous tube trailers, liquid trailers, cylinders and bundles but also the largest European hydrogen pipeline network. Air Liquide has a large experience for monitoring quality and critical parameter into H2 production plants and the distribution chain in order to survey the quality of H2 produced, filled and delivered. Air Liquide is engaged to the conception, manufacturing and implementation of H2 refuelling station.
AP2E is a manufacturer of gas analysis instruments based on OFCEAS (optical feedback cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy) and LPS (low pressure sampling) technologies. AP2E uses its advanced technology and its experience in the field to develop purity analysers for measuring low level of impurities in hydrogen as required in ISO 14687-2, with small sample volumes. Systems developed will be implemented for certification laboratories, and refuelling stations for quality control methods as specified in ISO 19880-8.
Cascade Technologies Ltd. is a leading manufacturer of gas analyzers and monitoring systems using Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL) technology. QCL technology provides a step change in gas analyzer performance through its increased sensitivity, speed of response, and fingerprinting capability. These technology advancements in the gas analysis market space provide a powerful solution for customers in various industries such as petrochemical, food and beverage, marine, automotive and pharmaceutical. Cascade has recently been acquired by Emerson (NYSE: EMR), based in St. Louis, Missouri (USA), a global leader in bringing technology and engineering together to provide innovative solutions for customers in industrial, commercial, and consumer markets around the world.
CEM has facilities and experience in preparing compressed gas mixtures according the gravimetric method described in the ISO 6142-1 standard. In addition its analytical facilities consist of GC-TCD, GC-FID, GC-MS and GC-PDHID chromatographic techniques and FTIR spectroscopy. CEM was/is contributing to the EMRP projects project ENG01 and project ENG54 with gas mixtures for the determination of density and heat capacity and in the EMPIR project 15NRM03 “Hydrogen” developing primary reference gas mixtures for the determination of trace impurities.
Empa is a public research and service institution for materials sciences and technology. Together with partners from industry, Empa turns research results into marketable innovations. As an institution of the ETH Domain, Empa is committed to excellence in all its activities. Within the scope of various projects Empa conducts investigations on gaseous fuels and the technology Power-to-Gas including the realization of a 0.2 MW demonstration plant called “move”.
FORCE will be involved in WP1 for flow metering and contribute to develop traceable gravimetric standards to deliver traceability to HRSs at 35 MPa and 70 MPa. FORCE will also contribute to develop and test a method to validate these refuelling stations against relevant standards and regulations. Experiences from verification of dispensers for petrol and diesel and measuring systems for liquids other than water will be fed into the project.
The Foundation for the Development of New Hydrogen Technologies in Aragon is a private non – profit organization promoted by the Regional Government, other public bodies and private companies. Currently the Board of the Foundation is formed by seventy-one stakeholders belonging to all the economy sectors: automotive, chemistry, power generation, financial, educational, engineering, research and development centers and real estate. Its team of young professionals performs R&D as well as consultancy projects, in cooperation or assisting local and national companies. Over the last ten years, FHA has been supporting the regional strategy for the uptake of H2 and FC technologies, publishing the Hydrogen Master Plan in Aragón (2007-2010, 2011-2015 and 2016-2020), and showcasing the whole hydrogen chain (production, management and efficient use), obtaining the primary energy from renewable sources by means of processes currently available (photovoltaic and wind). The facility includes hydrogen production means (PEM as well as alkaline electrolyzers), storage, dispensing and final use in fuel cells, including vehicles (BEV and FCEV).
IFE has more than 15 years of research experience related to modelling, system simulation, design (and controls), building, and testing of integrated hydrogen (H2) storage systems based on renewable energy (RE). In this project IFE will give access and use of HYNOR, a small-scale renewable energy hydrogen refuelling station (HRS) and hydrogen technology test centre. The HRS includes an alkaline water electrolyzer with a production capacity of 1 kg H2 per hour (10 bar), a two-stage hydrogen compressor (10/1000 bar), a 45 kg H2 storage (500 and 950 bar), and a 700 bar dispenser (with -40 °C pre-cooling) that supplies hydrogen to fuel cell electric vehicles (PEM-based FCEVs). Inside the R&D building there is a process room for testing and development of new hydrogen and fuel cell technology. The following installations are currently being validated: (1) a thermally driven metal hydride (MH) hydrogen compressor (10 Nm3/h at 10/200 bar); (2) a biogas (>90 % CH4) based sorption enhanced steam methane reforming (SESMR) system with a production capacity of 10 Nm3/h (0.5 bar); (3) and a biogas fuelled solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with a rated power of 20 kWel. The main system innovations currently being demonstrated at the Hynor Lillestrøm Test Center: (1) High pressure (200 bar) hydrogen gas system integration between the HRS and MH-compressor and (2) high temperature heat (1000 °C) system integration between SESMR anda SOFC. IFE hasl ong andbroa d experience in analyses of natural gas adnbiogas withga s chromatography and mass spectrometry.
Linde is one of the leading gas suppliers in the world. The hydrogen activity range is from building steam reformer, producing hydrogen in different qualities in gaseous tube trailers, liquid trailers, cylinders and bundles. The group deliver hydrogen to different industries and operates a large distribution network including hydrogen filling stations for fuel cell cars. Linde has different accreditation laboratories according to ISO17025 and ISO Guide 34 in Europe, Asia and USA. So Linde is literally setting standards for calibration of gas measuring instruments. The special gas production in Germany is able to produce gas mixtures covering all metrological hierarchies. Linde contributes to the metrology infrastructure and does participate in CEN, ISO and EIGA working groups.
NEL holds the UK National Standards for Flow Measurement and has a wide range of test facilities, expertise and knowledge relevant to the proposal. The ISO17025-accredited facilities cover a number of fluids including water, oils (up to 1500 cSt), dry and wet gas (one or two liquid phases) and full multiphase (water, oil and gas) flow. In addition, the recently commissioned Elevated Pressure and Temperature Flow Loop is capable of operating at temperatures between 10 °C and 100 °C at pressure up to 100 bar.
RISE holds the national laboratory in Sweden for volume, flow and temperature and has a variety of flow calibration facilities and has a strong profile towards calibration, education and consulting directed to the process industry. RISE has also experience in the implementation of ISO 14687-2 through a Swedish financed research project and has expertise in leading WPs as in project ENG54 WP5 “sampling” and in project 15NRM03 “WP2 “Analytical methods”. RISE will lead WP4 “sampling”.
SINTEF has been participating in many projects funded by the Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking programmes. Since 2012 SINTEF has regularly conducted sampling of hydrogen fuel from public HRS’s to check its compliance with ISO 14687-2. SINTEF has chaired the addition of Annex I to ISO 19880-1 (TC 197 WG 24) concerning sampling. SINTEF owns commercial instrumentation for sampling of gas and particulates from the HRS nozzle at 700 bar. SINTEF is currently contributing to the following ISO workgroups: WG 24, 27 and 28 of TC 197 and JWG 7 of TC 158.
VSL’s flow laboratories include a vast array of primary and secondary flow standards with a range spanning 15 decades. Furthermore VSL brings in vast experience in the preparation of gaseous reference materials (by primary methods) and the analysis of impurities at ppb levels. VSL has a unique facility for the analysis of many (semi) volatile (in)organic components, including Cavity Ring down Spectroscopy and a broad range of gas chromatographic systems with specific detectors, for ppb (or even ppt) levels of sulphur gases, CO/CO2, NH3, formic acid, formaldehyde, noble gases, etc.
CESAME-EXADEBIT is an internationally-known laboratory in the field of gas flow measurement. With a strength coming from more than 30 years’ experience in this area, CESAME-EXADEBIT holds the French national reference for the cubic meter of gas under high pressure and carries out tests for various industries – gas, chemical, aeronautics, mechanical…
Since 2004, CESAME-EXADEBIT is the Designated Institute of LNE the French National Metrology Institute for high pressure gas flow metering, and referred as “LNE-LADG” for this purpose. Within this framework, CESAME’s vision is to maintain and improve the flow unit standard.
The performances of the tests rigs are regularly verified by carrying out inter-comparisons within national, European and international frameworks, under the aegis of the BIPM.
In addition, CESAME-EXADEBIT is since 2004 a member of the EUREGA harmonisation group, which aims to define an equivalent primary reference in Germany, the Netherlands, Denmark and France.
CESAME-EXADEBIT benefits from a significant and unique infrastructure for the production and storage of compressed air (100 m3 at 200 bar), which allows a wide range of measurements of flow and pressure.